Fondazione Marisa Bellisario

UNA VOCE CHE RESTA

di Faezeh Mardani*

Le poetesse iraniane e la lotta per i diritti

La mutevole e travagliata storia della condizione femminile in Iran trova un punto di svolta a partire dalla seconda metà dell’Ottocento con l’arrivo della modernità e dei connessi cambiamenti socio-politici e culturali. È interessante notare come, negli stessi anni in cui i movimenti religiosi e civili in occidente cominciano a chiedere parità di diritti per le donne, per la prima volta viene messa sotto accusa e fronteggiata in Iran la millenaria supremazia patriarcale. Uno sguardo a tali idee e movimenti d’inizio Novecento suggerisce come la scrittura femminile abbia determinato le grandi conquiste sociali delle donne in quella terra.

Nel mese di maggio, al Salone del libro di Torino, a distanza di pochi mesi dalle proteste delle donne iraniane seguite con forte risonanza dal movimento internazionale “Donna, vita, libertà”, è stata presentata l’opera poetica della più importante poetessa contemporanea iraniana Forugh Farrokhzad (1935-1967). La vicinanza di questi eventi è l’occasione per soffermarsi molto brevemente sull’impatto decisivo che hanno avuto le tematiche principali della scrittura femminile sulle nuove generazioni di donne che si sono affacciate al nuovo mondo. Sfidare i rigidi dettami di un puritanesimo menzognero e di una morale religiosa svuotata del suo vero senso divenuta lecito mezzo di ipocrisia, sfruttamento e inganno, è il primo obbiettivo della giovane poetessa Forugh che scrive: Lascia pure che i corrotti sacerdoti mi chiamino vergogna della città/ lascia pure che i figliastri di Satana imbrattino il mio nome di infamia/ Io sono quel bocciolo d’angoscia/ che cresce sui rami del tuo ricordo/ e di notte, agli angoli della solitudine,/ ti cerca nel sussurro di un tenero amore

Nelle sue prime poesie pubblicate negli anni ’50 l’autrice descrive la propria femminilità come una condanna capace però di varcare le soglie della creatività artistica, territorio sino ad allora dominato dalla presenza maschile. Farrokhzad, parlando in prima persona e denunciando la propria sofferta condizione femminile, offre alle giovani generazioni, che leggono clandestinamente le sue poesie, una intima narrazione sulla realtà della donna iraniana e la sua femminilità inespressa, censurata, proibita e negata. La poetessa giunge così a illustrare poeticamente, in modo magistrale, le inquietudini della sua epoca e della sua generazione, continuando una audace battaglia di dissenso volta a smuovere le coscienze ed entrare in comunicazione emotiva con chi si avvicina alla poesia.

Il volume “Tutto il mio essere è un canto”, edito da Lindau, attraverso la traduzione dei versi, dei diari e delle lettere d’amore di Forugh Farrokhzad, consegna ai lettori italiani l’eredità di una giovane donna che coraggiosamente apre la strada alla potente ‘voce femminile’ nella letteratura persiana contemporanea: «Io sono della stirpe degli alberi. /Mi turba respirare l’aria infetta. / Un uccello morto mi consigliò di non dimenticare il volo. / Fine di ogni impeto/ è giungere alla luminosa essenza del sole/ e immergersi nella sapienza della luce./ È naturale/ che i mulini a vento marciscano./ Perché dovrei fermarmi?/ Mi stringo al petto le spighe acerbe del grano/ e le allatto./ La voce, solo la voce,/ la voce del limpido desiderio dell’acqua di scorrere,/ la voce del flusso della luce stellare/ sulla superficie femminea della terra,/ la voce che concepisce il senso/ e spande il pensiero condiviso dell’amore./ La voce, la voce,/ è solo la voce che resta».

La ‘voce’ di Forugh, indomabile, canta e risuona ancora dopo mezzo secolo dalla sua tragica e prematura morte, riecheggiando oggi negli inni di libertà delle giovani iraniane che rivendicano il diritto a esistere e partecipare al destino di una nazione rimanendo fedeli alla propria identità femminile.

 

*Dottore di ricerca in Studi iranici, insegna Lingua e letteratura persiana all’Università di Bologna

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