Fondazione Marisa Bellisario

INTELLIGENZA ARTIFICIALE: UNA SFIDA AL FEMMINILE

Di Francesca Rossi*

La prossima Presidente dell’associazione internazionale sulla ricerca in Intelligenza Artificiale (AAAI), è stata raggiunta a New York dove lavora al centro di ricerche TJ Watson di IBM per darci, attraverso la nostra newsletter, il suo punto di vista sui temi chiave relativi allo sviluppo della IA, con particolare focus sui temi dell’etica. Francesca Rossi è un IBM Fellow e il global leader dell’azienda per l’etica dell’IA.

L’Intelligenza Artificiale (IA) è una disciplina scientifica e tecnologica che permette ad aziende di ogni settore di migliorare la propria efficienza, fornire servizi personalizzati e flessibili, risolvere problemi su dati di testo, immagini e parlato.

L’uso pervasivo dell’IA e la scarsa conoscenza delle sue reali capacità e dei suoi limiti fa naturalmente nascere domande e preoccupazioni riguardo al suo impatto sulla nostra vita e sulla società. Possiamo fidarci dell’IA, e lasciarci guidare da questa tecnologia per prendere decisioni anche importanti, come in ambito medico, finanziario, e di servizi pubblici?

Per farlo, dobbiamo renderla trasparente, spiegabile, rispettosa della privacy e scevra da pregiudizi, in modo che sappia evitare decisioni che non seguano principi come l’equità e la non-discriminazione. I dati usati dall’IA possono infatti contenere correlazioni tra variabili del sistema che potrebbero portare a decisioni discriminatorie.

Fortunatamente, esistono soluzioni tecniche e metodi di formazione e di training dei programmatori per evitare questi problemi. Un fattore importante è anche la diversità nei team che producono IA: una maggiore eterogeneità permette di individuare sorgenti di possibili discriminazioni con più efficacia.

Il mio ruolo, come ricercatrice e dirigente aziendale nell’ambito dell’etica dell’IA, è di contribuire a costruire un ecosistema di fiducia intorno a questa tecnologia, in modo che possa essere creata, usata e governata assicurando un impatto positivo. In pochi anni sono stati fatti molti passi avanti: il comitato interno IBM per l’etica deIl’IA lavora con tutte le divisioni di business e con molti altri partner per costruire IA affidabile, e la recente proposta di legge sull’IA della Commissione Europea è un esempio di come governare l’uso dell’IA sulla base del livello di rischio.

Le giovani donne di oggi hanno una grande opportunità nell’ambito dell’IA. È importante comunicare che non esistono discipline non adatte a loro. A questo punto, l’IA é una disciplina socio-tecnologica, dove è necessaria un’attenzione all’impatto sulla vita reale delle persone, oltre che alle sue capacità in astratto.

Le donne hanno naturalmente una grande attitudine a lavorare in modo multi-disciplinare e multi-stakeholder e quindi hanno potenzialmente una marcia in più per contribuire e anche guidare la trasformazione basata sull’IA. È necessario però educare le nuove generazioni di donne e aiutarle a capire che sono fondamentali per creare un futuro in cui le persone, le aziende, i governi e la società in generale possano essere migliori anche grazie alla tecnologia.

*Prossima Presidente dell’associazione internazionale sulla ricerca in Intelligenza Artificiale (AAAI).

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