Fondazione Marisa Bellisario

TASSONOMIA UE: UNA DISCIPLINA NORMATIVA PER LA FINANZA SOSTENIBILE

di Laura Luigia Martini*

Da tempo si parla ormai di iniziative ESG con riferimento a quegli investimenti che rispondono ai criteri di sostenibilità, ma il potenziale inganno del cosiddetto greenwashing, ovvero dell’ecologismo di facciata, è sempre dietro l’angolo. Per scongiurare questo pericolo e incoraggiare il flusso dei capitali nella corretta direzione, negli ultimi anni l’Unione Europea ha varato atti legislativi specifici in materia di sostenibilità. Mi riferisco in primis al “Sustainable Finance Disclosure Regulation” (SFDR EU), entrato in vigore il 10 marzo 2021, con l’obiettivo di disciplinare l’informativa in materia di finanza sostenibile e di standardizzare i relativi prodotti finanziari rendendo confrontabili le strategie di investimento. La “EU Taxonomy Regulation”, ovvero la Tassonomia UE, acquisisce invece piena efficacia legale dall’1 gennaio 2022 e rappresenta una sorta di vocabolario della finanza sostenibile, un sistema normativo basato su una metodologia rigorosa, seguendo la quale è possibile dirigere i flussi di capitale verso specifiche attività che possono contribuire alla soluzione sostanziale della crisi climatica e ambientale. In base a tale normativa, l’Unione Europea dà alle imprese lo strumento per disegnare strategie aziendali che perseguano obiettivi sostenibili, fornisce agli investitori la possibilità di integrare nei loro portafogli i temi della sostenibilità e consegna alle istituzioni pubbliche un ordinamento migliorativo delle proprie politiche di transizione ecologica.

Le attività incluse nella Tassonomia sono tali da rispondere a sei obiettivi, dalla mitigazione del cambiamento climatico, all’adattamento al cambiamento stesso, all’uso sostenibile e alla protezione delle risorse idriche e marine, fino alla transizione verso l’economia circolare, alla prevenzione e al controllo dell’inquinamento e alla protezione della biodiversità e della salute degli eco-sistemi. I settori a cui la metodologia estesa ai sei obiettivi può essere applicata sono numerosi e comprendono l’agricoltura, le attività minerarie, la produzione industriale, l’energia, le telecomunicazioni, i trasporti ma anche l’approvvigionamento idrico e la gestione dei rifiuti. Il tutto sempre nel rispetto del cosiddetto “Do not Significant Harm” (DNSH), clausola che permette di includere nella Tassonomia UE esclusivamente quelle attività eco-compatibili che, pur apportando benefici in linea con uno dei sei obiettivi, non arrechino danni significativi a nessuno degli altri cinque. Gli esperti dell’Unione in materia di Finanza Sostenibile hanno poi lavorato alla cosiddetta “Social Taxonomy”, ovvero a quella parte della Tassonomia che deve tener conto di obiettivi sociali rilevanti e delle attività virtuose ad essi correlate, canalizzando di conseguenza gli investimenti privati.

Va ricordato infine che la Tassonomia UE è diretta a tutti i soggetti coinvolti dai mercati finanziari con sede nella UE e le Società dell’Unione che rientrano nell’ambito di applicazione sono tenute a comunicare tempestivamente il grado di allineamento delle loro attività alla Tassonomia stessa. Questo per definire l’effettivo contributo di una specifica attività economica ai relativi obiettivi ambientali in base al confronto con prestabilite soglie prestazionali. Un esempio applicativo è quello dell’emissione di sustainability-linked bonds o analoghi strumenti di debito, la quale è determinata dalla combinazione della Tassonomia UE con i “Sustainable Development Goals” (SDGs), gli Obiettivi dello Sviluppo Sostenibile delle Nazioni Unite.

In conclusione: l’impianto regolatorio della Tassonomia UE è chiaramente molto complesso, soprattutto perché trattasi di una classificazione normativa in continuo divenire, peraltro corredata di vari atti delegati – si pensi solo al recente e quanto mai controverso atto relativo all’inclusione del nucleare e del gas naturale tra gli investimenti considerati sostenibili dal punto di vista ambientale -. E nonostante la vastità dell’argomento trattato e la numerosità delle variabili in gioco, trovo particolarmente utile e interessante questa metodologia, non lontana dall’ingegneria o dalla matematica applicate all’economia e all’econometria. Vero è che “tassonomia” deriva dal greco τάξις, tàxis, ordinamento e νόμος, nòmos, norma o regola, e che tutto il nostro mondo per come lo conosciamo nasce dallo studio dei taxa, categorie organizzate gerarchicamente secondo i criteri della sistematica, senza i quali non saremmo in grado di produrre alcuna classificazione scientifica. Questa moderna Tassonomia è la nostra grande occasione per migliorare la vita stessa sul nostro pianeta attraverso l’indirizzamento delle risorse finanziarie verso investimenti sostenibili. Usiamola!

*SDA Bocconi School of Management, Advisory Board Member

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