Fondazione Marisa Bellisario

LE POTENZIALITÀ DEL TURISMO ARCHEOLOGICO DA VALORIZZARE

di Carolina Botti*

Parlando di turismo archeologico in Italia non si può fare a meno di pensare al Colosseo o al Parco archeologico di Pompei che attraggono quotidianamente decine di migliaia di visitatori provenienti da tutto il mondo, ma una sfida importante è quella di far conoscere e valorizzare anche tanti altri siti di grandissimo valore e bellezza presenti sul territorio da nord a sud, isole comprese. Purtroppo, non sempre i reperti si presentano con un livello di conservazione tali da essere attrattivi ed immediatamente compresi dal grande pubblico, per cui in tali casi può essere incentivante promuovere una visita di questi siti coadiuvata dalle tecnologie di realtà virtuale, facendo sempre attenzione al livello di affidabilità scientifica della ricostruzione per evitare effetti “wow” privi di documentazione storica.

Per rispondere a tali bisogni, offrendo una modalità di lettura e fruizione di alcuni siti archeologici con un potenziale narrativo ancora non pienamente espresso, il ministero della Cultura ha commissionato ad ALES, sua società in house, il progetto e-Archeo realizzato in collaborazione con diverse università italiane e il CNR.

Il fil rouge che ha guidato le scelte narrative del progetto è stato quello di illustrare le varie tipologie di insediamento di popolazioni e culture diverse che si sono sviluppate sul territorio italico. Sono stati dunque scelti otto siti del Patrimonio Culturale, dislocati sul territorio nazionale di fondazione etrusca, greca, fenicio-punica, indigena e romana: Egnazia (Puglia), Sibari (Calabria), Velia (Campania), Nora (Sardegna), Alba Fucens (Abruzzo), Cerveteri (Lazio), Marzabotto (Emilia Romagna) e le Ville di Sirmione e Desenzano (Lombardia).

Di ciascun sito è stata raccontata la storia e il suo divenire, illustrandone i monumenti meglio conservati (i luoghi della vita pubblica e privata, le necropoli), rappresentati nella loro realtà attuale di paesaggio archeologico e nella dimensione ricostruita.

Per questi otto siti, e-Archeo ha costituito un progetto di valorizzazione multimediale integrato e multicanale con soluzioni trasversali, da cui si attivano singole applicazioni per vari usi e tipologie di pubblico, promuovendo questo patrimonio in modalità sia scientifica, che narrativa ed emozionale.

I dati scientifici sono serviti quale base di partenza per lo studio di alcuni ambienti degli otto siti, la cui ricostruzione virtuale (a scala architettonica, paesaggistica, e talvolta urbana) è stata affidata a cinque aziende specializzate del settore 3D. Al fine di favorire la condivisione e conservazione a lungo termine dei dataset prodotti, tutto il materiale scientifico e ricostruttivo è stato reso disponibile sulla piattaforma Zenodo, a disposizione della comunità internazionale secondo licenze @CreativeCommons.

Le ricostruzioni virtuali sono state utilizzate in diversi applicativi (output), sviluppati da sette industrie creative italiane: e-Archeo 3D, piattaforma web interattiva per l’esplorazione dei siti e la lettura diacronica dei loro ambienti; e-Archeo Voci, podcast che racconta eventi, personaggi e unicità dei siti; e-Archeo Tattile, installazione tattile multimediale per rendere accessibile a tutti la lettura degli spazi archeologici e i suoi significati; e-Archeo HI®, installazione multimediale narrativa con personaggi olografici; e-Archeo Video, filmati introduttivi ai siti archeologici e video backstage di narrazione del progetto. Tutti i contenuti sono visionabili sul sito www.e-archeo.it.

Un risultato particolarmente rappresentativo di questo progetto è visibile presso la Necropoli della Banditaccia, sito Unesco del Parco archeologico di Cerveteri e Tarquinia con grandi potenzialità ancora da sviluppare in termini di conoscenza e frequentazione da parte del grande pubblico, in particolare presso il Museo Archeologico Cerite che ha incrementato le proprie capacità di accessibilità e di inclusione con l’installazione interattiva e-Archeo Human Interface©, e presso la Sala Mengarelli, ora riaperta al pubblico, con applicazioni multimediali pensate e sviluppate per l’eccezionale contesto archeologico, con la consulenza di esperti in disabilità visive e uditive per rendere accessibile a tutti la lettura degli spazi archeologici e i suoi significati.

Questo tipo di azioni rappresentano un valido esempio di cooperazione tra Istituzioni, enti di ricerca pubblici e imprese creative nel settore dell’innovazione digitale, un’opportunità per sperimentare, oltre a forme di divulgazione e approfondimento culturale scientifico, anche nuove modalità di progettazione e cooperazione integrata tra pubblico e privato.

*Direttore Ales

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