Fondazione Marisa Bellisario


di Florinda Scicolone*

La Banca d’Italia, nel luglio scorso, aggiornando la circolare n. 285 del 17 dicembre 2013, che riguarda il governo societario delle banche, ha introdotto nelle disposizioni di vigilanza la prescrizione di una quota di genere minima pari al 33%, sia nei CdA che nei Collegi Sindacali. L’intervento regolamentare trova la ratio nell’art. 53, comma 1, lett d) del TUB che attribuisce alla Banca d’Italia il potere di emanare disposizioni in tema di governo societario e organizzazione. Pertanto, in seguito a tale prescrizione, le banche dovranno adeguarsi al primo rinnovo integrale dell’organo effettuato dopo gennaio 2022, ovvero e in ogni caso entro il 30 giugno 2024. Mentre per le banche di piccole dimensioni è previsto il 20% entro giugno 2024, il 33% entro il 2027.

La disposizione prescrittiva riguarda tutti i gruppi bancari e banche non quotate che operano in Italia, che rimanevano fuori dell’obbligo normativo della quota di genere al 40% previsto dalla Legge Golfo-Mosca. Dal 2022 in poi, quindi, ci sarà una differenza. Le banche quotate, infatti, rimanendo soggette al profilo sanzionatorio previsto dalla Legge Golfo-Mosca, qualora non si adeguino avranno la decadenza alla terza di diffida dell’intero organo di amministrazione. Per tutte le banche non quotate, invece, la disposizione testè emanata dalla Banca d’Italia, non prevede la sanzione della decadenza dell’intero organo in caso di mancato rispetto della disposizione. Tuttavia, dal momento che la Banca d’Italia è l’autorità nazionale competente nell’ambito del meccanismo di vigilanza unico sulle banche che operano nel nostro ordinamento, una tale disposizione prescrittiva ‒ sia pure in assenza di un meccanismo sanzionatorio di decadenza ‒ giuridicamente assume un valore vincolante. Senza contate che, qualora gli statuti delle banche non quotate non lo prevedano, adesso dovranno inserire il meccanismo della quota di genere.

Importante messaggio di cambiamento è arrivato, quindi, dalla Banca d’Italia, che in questo modo si allineata all’orientamento europeo previsto dalla Direttiva (U.E) c.d “CRD V” e linee guida EBA, in un settore, come quello bancario che fino a ora era tra quelli maggiormente sottorappresentato.

Il provvedimento della Banca d’Italia dimostra, ancora una volta, però, che per accendere il cambiamento culturale in tema di gender gap, in Italia è stato necessario ricorrere sempre a un meccanismo prescrittivo di quota. È forte l’auspicio che, da questo momento in poi, il Presidente del Consiglio Mario Draghi che ha posto fortemente al centro della sua azione di governo la parità di genere, con la sua autorevolezza nazionale e internazionale, possa consegnare al Paese un forte imprimatur di un cambio di approccio culturale per la realizzazione, finalmente, della buona causa dell’empowerment women.

* Giurista d’Impresa

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