Fondazione Marisa Bellisario

L’ECONOMIA GREEN E LA “DECARBONIZZAZIONE” DEL PORTAFOGLIO INVESTIMENTI

di Sofia D’Alessandro*

 La violenza economica è tra le forme più subdole e meno note della violenza di genere. L’educazione finanziaria è uno degli strumenti che noi donne possiamo adottare ai fini di acquisire la conoscenza di prodotti, concetti e rischi in campo economico. L’OCSE ha affermato che “Viene considerata una competenza di base per potersi orientare nelle scelte finanziarie anche le più semplici che riteniamo di assumere nella vita”. Migliorare conoscenze e comportamenti finanziari è importante e conviene come ha in più occasioni evidenziato anche l’Istituzione di Banca d’Italia. In questo contesto abbiamo assistito al proliferarsi di termini come spread, inflazione e Buoni del Tesoro, vocaboli ormai presenti e già enucleati in numerosi “ABC della Finanza”. Accanto alla finanza tradizionale però, si è affiancata quella dei cosiddetti impieghi “sostenibili”.

La parola green ridonda ovunque, anche negli investimenti finanziari. È un modello di economia che permette la riduzione dell’impatto ambientale. Interessante è il fatto che venga associata ad azioni volte in favore di uno sviluppo sostenibile, come l’uso di energie rinnovabili, la riduzione dei consumi ed il riciclaggio dei rifiuti. Tra gli scopi principali dell’economia verde vi è il contrasto ai potenziali danni ambientali generati dall’intero ciclo di trasformazione delle materie prime, dall’estrazione allo smaltimento.

La green economy ricopre un ruolo importante nelle nuove politiche volte ad accompagnare il processo di innovazione tecnologica e di rivoluzione ambientale con l’obiettivo di favorire l’economia e lo sviluppo nel rispetto dell’ambiente e della sua sostenibilità. Uno dei punti cardine su cui si fonda il Piano Nazionale di Ripresa e Resilienza (PNRR) è la transizione ecologica. In quest’ambito, gli obiettivi che l’Italia conta di raggiungere fanno riferimento a una nuova economia che coinvolge la sfera finanziaria e quella della filiera agroalimentare. Il punto d’arrivo della transizione energetica è però il passaggio alle fonti rinnovabili dove ne fanno da padrone il gas naturale e la decarbonizzazione. In questi giorni (dal 30 novembre al 12 dicembre 2023), si sta svolgendo a Dubai la COP28, la XXVIII^ Conferenza delle Parti dell’UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) dedicata ad affrontare gli orientamenti climatici del futuro con un’enfasi particolare sulla riduzione delle emissioni dei gas serra, alla base del riscaldamento globale.

L’azione di decarbonizzazione prevede il passaggio dall’uso, in ambito industriale e domestico, di combustibili fossili come il carbone, il gas naturale o il petrolio, a fonti di energia rinnovabili e prive di emissioni nocive di anidride carbonica (CO2). L’uso di combustibili fossili è la principale causa di surriscaldamento globale. Ha avuto inizio nel XVIII^ secolo con la rivoluzione industriale e a poco a poco, rilasciando nell’atmosfera quantitativi sempre maggiori di anidride carbonica (ad oggi, secondo i dati diffusi dall’Unione Europea, il settore energetico è responsabile dell’80% delle emissioni), ha contribuito a formare il gas a effetto serra. La decarbonizzazione svolge un ruolo fondamentale nel processo di transizione perché, oltre ad influire sul processo di riduzione delle emissioni di gas serra, è rivolta verso fonti di energia sostenibili e prive di carbonio, come le rinnovabili. Tutto ciò, richiederà decenni e migliaia di miliardi di dollari.

Sono numerose le società di asset management impegnate nella costruzione di portafogli di investimento “Net Zero”. L’IEA (International Energy Agency), ha comunicato che la decarbonizzazione del settore energetico è una sfida da 110 mila miliardi di dollari. In aggiunta, la società americana di investimento Jennison Associates, tra le più impegnate nella costruzione di fondi tematici, ha evidenziato che la transizione verso un’economia green svilupperà un mercato da 2.500 miliardi di dollari concentrando gli investimenti sulla ricerca delle aziende produttrici di combustibili a zero o a basse emissioni, sulla promozione delle applicazioni e degli edifici industriali dedicati all’efficienza energetica e sull’elaborazione di infrastrutture intelligenti di creazione dell’energia.

La decarbonizzazione rappresenta una importante opportunità di lungo termine per gli investitori perché oltre a includere soluzioni green, implica il riconoscimento dei cambiamenti includendo anche le politiche attualmente implementate e i piani effettivamente annunciati dai governi.

*Head of Index & Market Data, Intesa Sanpaolo

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