Fondazione Marisa Bellisario

EMILIA-ROMAGNA NOSTRA, “TIN BOTA”!

di Chiara Benericetti* e Susanna Zucchelli**

Dopo mesi di siccità, nei giorni scorsi la Romagna e una parte dell’Emilia hanno vissuto un evento estremo, in poco più di 32 ore sono caduti 800 milioni di metri cubi di acqua, un dramma che impone uno sguardo al futuro da reinterpretare alla luce dei cambiamenti climatici.

Oltre ai danni diretti provocati dall’alluvione, la Food Valley Italiana, costruita con il duro lavoro delle generazioni precedenti, sarà fortemente penalizzata sui mercati da speculazioni, impatti negativi sui consumi, frutteti da estirpare e da reimpiantare, che non entreranno immediatamente in produzione.

Alcuni numeri dell’alluvione per quanto riguarda il settore agroalimentare: le unità locali delle aziende alimentari e delle bevande che risiedono nei comuni coinvolti sono oltre 2.800, con 23mila occupati, circa il 40% del comparto regionale, mentre sono quasi 21mila le aziende agricole colpite, per oltre 40mila addetti, più della metà del settore.

Le coltivazioni ortofrutticole e vitivinicole sono quelle più colpite dall’alluvione, in ballo circa il 45% circa della superficie ortofrutticola regionale, la vite è quella maggiormente coinvolta con circa 27mila ettari, pari al 50% della superficie regionale. Anche se la vite è una specie che generalmente tollera bene il ristagno idrico, il problema risiede nell’innalzamento delle temperature di questi giorni che sta favorendo lo sviluppo di peronospora e oidio, a rischio c’è la vendemmia 2023.

La Regione, in collaborazione con i Centri di Assistenza Agricola, sta facendo una puntuale ricognizione dei danni subiti dalle imprese agricole per attivare le richieste sui fondi nazionali ed europei.

Il Ministero dell’Agricoltura ha stanziato 100 milioni, nell’ambito del decreto-legge Alluvioni annunciato dal Governo, ma non saranno sufficienti a fronteggiare tutti i danni del comparto.

Le aziende che hanno riportato danni alle strutture e alle produzioni agricole potranno ottenere un indennizzo dal Fondo di solidarietà nazionale fino a 50 milioni di euro. Altri 50 milioni del Fondo di solidarietà sono allocati sugli interventi compensativi quali contributi in conto capitale fino all’80%, prestiti con ammortamento quinquennale, proroga delle operazioni di credito agrario e agevolazioni previdenziali.

Ulteriori 75 milioni provengono dal Fondo Innovazione in Agricoltura, istituito dalla Legge di Bilancio, per gli investimenti e i progetti di innovazione.

Le risorse regionali immediatamente disponibili sono circa 20 milioni di euro avanzati dal PSR di transizione in aggiunta alle prime risorse del nuovo Sviluppo Rurale 2023- 2027.

Un ulteriore strumento è rappresentato dal primo pilastro della Pac, la Politica Agricola Comune, ovvero il fondo di crisi europeo da attivare sugli aiuti diretti agli agricoltori che prevede dei contributi una tantum.

Infine, il fondo catastrofale europeo per investimenti infrastrutturali e per ripristinare il territorio a seguito di frane e dissesti.

Ora bisogna lavorare sulla ricostruzione, in sinergia con la Regione e i Comuni, e pensare a un nuovo contesto diverso dal passato, a progetti per rendere più efficiente la rete idrogeologica, alla creazione di un’agenzia per il dissesto e la prevenzione dal rischio idrogeologico.

Nella ripresa di un territorio così duramente colpito, è fondamentale la capacità del sistema di creare progettualità condivise e di ampio orizzonte. L’acqua e la sua gestione sono al centro di questo percorso, che individua i razionali strategici per un utilizzo della risorsa consapevole in tutte le fasi della filiera. Ne sono un esempio gli Accordi di Programma tra Hera e i Consorzi di Bonifica, che regolano gli aspetti quantitativi e qualitativi del riuso dell’acqua depurata, contributo di primaria importanza per utilizzi irrigui o industriali in periodi di siccità. Anche gli studi promossi da Hera con UNIBO sul calcolo della water footprint della dieta sostenibile consolidano il nuovo paradigma agroalimentare del One Health, un benessere che tocca diverse dimensioni, nutrizionale, sociale ed ambientale. L’acqua va usata in modo consapevole e misurato in tutta la filiera.

Occorre investire su scenari agronomici innovativi, che promuovano la smartizzazione delle pratiche irrigue e in cui la gestione dell’acqua integra conoscenza e innovazione, in un sistema efficiente e connesso in tutte le sue fasi.

Nell’emergenza ci siamo tutti mobilitati e abbiamo trovato soluzioni immediate, mostrando la resilienza che ci caratterizza, adesso occorre individuare strategie a lungo termine perché i cambiamenti climatici e la manutenzione degli apparati di sicurezza idrogeologica hanno bisogno di un approccio condiviso, di concerto con tutte le istituzioni.

* Finanziamenti Agevolati e Operazioni M&A Caviro

** Direttore Acqua Hera

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