Fondazione Marisa Bellisario


di Cinzia Boschiero*

In occasione della Giornata Internazionale delle donne e ragazze nella scienza l’11 febbraio sono state molte le iniziative di rilievo a livello nazionale ed europeo; purtroppo sono emerse discrasie relative alla situazione delle donne ricercatrici in Europa. Molto successo ha avuto un interessante ciclo di incontri intitolato “Tra Italia e Francia, una certa idea dell’Europa”, con la presenza di tre donne scienziate Claudie Haigneré, Alessandra Sciutti, Chiara Montanari. L’associazione “Donne e Scienza” nel suo congresso intitolato “Donne, Ricerca, Trasformazioni”, ha evidenziato come si stia assistendo a importanti cambiamenti nel rapporto fra donne, ricerca e società in termini di equilibrio/disequilibrio sia quantitativo sia qualitativo. Alcuni dati statistici mostrano come, nella maggior parte degli Stati membri dell’UE-27 e degli Stati associati, le donne siano sottorappresentate tra i ricercatori, malgrado il fatto che il numero di ricercatrici sia cresciuto; inoltre ci sono più donne che uomini in posizioni junior e più uomini che donne in posizioni senior; tra i ricercatori che sono in coppia con figli, ci sono più donne che uomini che lavorano con contratti precari. Proprio per questo l’attuale strategia dell’Unione Europea mira a far avanzare le donne in ruoli scientifici di primo piano, a raggiungere l’equilibrio di genere nel processo decisionale e integrare la dimensione di genere nel contesto della ricerca e dell’innovazione. Gli attuali meccanismi per raggiungere questo obiettivo a livello di Stati membri dell’Unione europea sono lo Spazio europeo della ricerca (SER) e il Programma quadro dell’UE per la ricerca e l’innovazione (Horizon Europe 2021-2027), che richiedono che tutte le organizzazioni che facciano domanda di finanziamenti debbano dimostrare di avere un Piano per l’uguaglianza di genere (GEP) e spiegare se/come ci si aspetta che la dimensione di genere influenzi i risultati e gli esiti. Il CNR ha pubblicato il bilancio di genere che conforta visto che il Consiglio nazionale delle Ricerche ha costituito un gruppo di lavoro per la realizzazione del primo bilancio di genere del più grande Ente pubblico di ricerca italiano. Molte domande però a livello europeo e internazionale non hanno ancora risposte adeguate: ogni 27 Nobel, solo uno è vinto da una scienziata, occorre approfondire su quali siano gli ostacoli che limitano ancora oggi la partecipazione femminile negli ambiti STEM. Il tema “Genere e scienza” infatti non vuole significare solamente conoscere il numero delle donne presenti nella ricerca e valutare la loro sotto-rappresentazione soprattutto in taluni ambiti disciplinari, ma significa sottolineare che servono adeguate politiche di genere con interventi strutturali, in quanto la scienza non è neutra socialmente, ma è inserita in un contesto culturale che varia in ogni epoca e società, sottostà, ancora oggi, ad approcci diversificati, carichi di pregiudizi da combattere unite. Un apposito sito dedicato alle “gendered innovations” fa riflettere sul valido contributo delle donne nella ricerca. Si segnala inoltre il progetto europeo DIVA, con dati da cui si evince che occorre combattere i meccanismi di auto-esclusione, garantire la trasparenza nella valutazione del merito, introdurre le quote di genere per garantire la presenza femminile negli organismi che decidono le politiche scientifiche e nel management delle istituzioni di ricerca.


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