Fondazione Marisa Bellisario

DALLA PARTE DEI GIOVANI

di padre Enzo Fortunato*

Da qualche giorno assistiamo con rammarico e preoccupazione alla protesta di giovani studenti che hanno deciso di piantare delle tende di fronte alle loro università. Una protesta, quanto mai condivisibile e che vorrei fare mia, contro il caro affitti, che nelle grandi città italiane rende possibile frequentare gli studi fuori sede soltanto a chi proviene da una condizione di agio e benessere economico. Ecco un’istantanea dell’Italia attuale, un’immagine della realtà che buca gli schermi e la retorica imperante. La nostra gioventù, il futuro della nostra nazione, che arranca per poter studiare, trovare un lavoro e magari un giorno pensare di costruire una famiglia.

La crisi economica, pandemica e ora bellica diviene sempre più una crisi sociale. Un allarme che arriva, sempre più pressante, dai centri Caritas. In una situazione del genere è scandaloso che l’1% della popolazione mondiale possegga il 45,6% dei patrimoni privati. Il Censis ha pubblicato il Rapporto sulla situazione sociale dell’Italia. Le famiglie che vivono in condizione di povertà assoluta nel nostro Paese sono più di 1,9 milioni, il 7,5% del totale. Si tratta di individui impossibilitati ad acquistare un paniere di beni e servizi giudicati essenziali per uno standard di vita accettabile.

Al di là di una facile propaganda, nessun governo – sia esso di destra o di sinistra – sembra essere in grado di far fronte alla questione sociale.

Papa Francesco non ha mai nascosto la sua posizione contro il sistema economico tardocapitalistico e le ricette neoliberiste. La fragilità dei sistemi mondiali di fronte alla pandemia ha evidenziato che non tutto si risolve con la libertà di mercato e che, oltre a riabilitare una politica sana non sottomessa al dettato della finanza, «dobbiamo rimettere la dignità umana al centro e su quel pilastro vanno costruite le strutture sociali alternative di cui abbiamo bisogno» (Fratelli tutti, 3 ottobre 2020).

Le parole indignate di Papa Francesco non sono mai mancate: «questa economia uccide», «ribellatevi», «nessun profitto è legittimo se viene meno l’opzione per i poveri». Si tratta di una critica ai sistemi di potere finanziario che soffocano l’economia reale inasprendo la giustizia sociale. Il Papa ha spesso ricordato come la gioventù, proprio come il Santo di Assisi, sia chiamata ad avere il coraggio di ribellarsi e di andare controcorrente.

C’è bisogno di un nuovo patto intergenerazionale, dunque. È uno di quei processi che il Papa ha già messo in moto come strade per una nuova umanità. Mi riferisco in particolare a The Economy of Francesco. Un’iniziativa che prende le mosse dall’enciclica Fratelli tutti (3 ottobre 2020), che dal 2020 coinvolge mille giovani provenienti da tutto il mondo e prova a ripensare un nuovo modello economico-sociale a misura d’uomo. L’idea è di «rianimare, riparare e rispondere a una nuova economia». È necessario immaginare un’economia diversa – sostiene il successore di Pietro – ma soltanto i giovani possono guidarla, divenendone protagonisti.

Nostro compito, tuttavia, è di sostenere questo cambiamento, creandone le condizioni. E la prima di queste – necessaria e indifferibile – è che la politica e le istituzioni, al di là degli interessi di parte, aprano un tavolo di confronto per trovare quelle soluzioni che permettano agli studenti di esercitare i loro diritti secondo il dettato costituzionale. «È compito della Repubblica – ribadisce l’articolo 3 – rimuovere gli ostacoli di ordine economico e sociale, che, limitando di fatto la libertà e l’eguaglianza dei cittadini, impediscono il pieno sviluppo della persona umana». Oggi si parla di nuove riforme costituzionali, mentre queste parole – che dovrebbero rappresentare la bussola di ogni politica presente e futura – rischiano di essere sempre più dimenticate.

*Giornalista e scrittore

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